What is the name of the process by which a strand of DNA is used as a template to make a pre-mRNA strand?
What is the name of the process in which the information encoded on an mRNA strand is used to build a protein?
What is the name of the process in which pre-mRNA is converted into mRNA?
Polypeptides are composed of _____.
RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____.
Right or wrong? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid.
Which of the following statements about mutations isINCORRECT?
A knock-out mutation results in the complete absence of the mutated protein.
When a DNA sequence is changed from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what type of mutation has occurred?
Which mutation(s) would not change the rest of the reading frame of a genetic sequence following the mutation(s)?
One mutation by addition and one by deletion.
If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated so that a base was added after the first G and third T were removed, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutated protein?
If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs from the normal protein by one central amino acid, which of the following types of mutations might have occurred?
An addition mutation and a deletion mutation.
In the diagram below, the gray unit represents _____.
In the diagram below, the green unit represents _____.
In the diagram below, the two blue wires represent _____.
Which of these correctly illustrates the nucleotide pairing of DNA and RNA?
The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.
5' —> 3'
What is the name of the process that converts the genetic information stored in DNA into an RNA copy?
DNA doesNODo you store the information to synthesize which of the following?
Transcription starts at a promoter. What is a promoter?
A site on DNA that recruits RNA polymerase
Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a gene encoding a protein?
The promoter is an untranscribed region of a gene.
What determines which base is added to an RNA strand during transcription?
Base pairing between DNA template and RNA nucleotides
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template?
What happens to RNA polymerase II after it finishes transcribing a gene?
You are free to join another promoter and start transcription.
Which of the following transcription-associated terms describes nucleic acid regions?
- District Attorney
During transcription in eukaryotes, a type of RNA polymerase called RNA polymerase II moves along the DNA template strand in the 3'→5' direction. However, for any given gene, any of the double-stranded DNA strands can function as a template strand.
For any given gene whatFinallydetermines which strand of DNA serves as the template strand?
the base sequence of the gene promoter
Once transcription has begun, several steps must be completed before the fully processed mRNA is ready to be used as a template for protein synthesis on ribosomes.
WhichthreeWhich statements correctly describe the processing that takes place before a mature mRNA leaves the cell nucleus?
- A cap consisting of a modified guanine nucleotide is attached to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA.
- A poly-A tail (50-250 nucleotides adenine) is added to the 3' end of the pre-mRNA.
- Noncoding sequences called introns are separated by molecular complexes called spliceosomes.
During RNA processing, a _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.
modified guanine nucleotide
During RNA processing, a _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
a long chain of adenine nucleotides
Spliceosomes are made up of _____.
snRNP and other proteins
RNA segments connected by spliceosomes are _____.
The translation will take place on _____.
Where is the translation done?
Which nucleic acid is translated to form a protein?
Which of the following processes is an example of post-translational modification?
Which of the following steps takes place last in the translation initiation phase?
The large ribosomal subunit binds to the complex.
Where do new aminoacyl-tRNAs enter the ribosome during elongation?
What is translocation?
The ribosome moves a codon along the mRNA.
Right or wrong. A tRNA with an anticodon complementary to the stop codon catalyzes the reaction that terminates translation.
Which of these is a tRNA?
Which enzyme catalyzes the binding of an amino acid to tRNA?
The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____.
What is the name of the process shown in the diagram?
Introduction (of the translation)
The tRNA primer binds to the _____ site on the ribosome.
RNA that has an amino acid attached to it and that binds to the codon on the mRNA is denoted as ____.
Amino acids are attached to tRNA by enzymes called ________.
The process performed by the ribosome of reading mRNA and making a protein is called _____.
_____ translation always takes place at the start codon of the mRNA.
______ of translation occurs when the ribosome encounters a stop codon on the mRNA.
Generally speaking, which of the following mutations would most affect the protein encoded by a gene?
a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene
Which of the following statements best defines the term?Operon?
An operon is a region of DNA that encodes a number of functionally related genes under the control of the same promoter.
Which molecule binds to promoters in bacteria and transcribes the coding regions of genes?
What is allosteric regulation?
In allosteric regulation, a small molecule binds to a large protein, causing it to change its shape and activity.
What are the requirementstiredExpress structural genes more efficiently?
No glucose, lots of lactose
What happens to the expression oflacIgene when lactose is not present in the cell?
There is no change: thelacIthe gene is constitutively expressed.
What is the function oflacZGen?
This gene encodes an enzyme, b-galactosidase, that breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose.
Which of the following enzymes converts ATP to cAMP?
Right or wrong? The mechanism by which glucose inhibits the expression oftiredStructural genes is known as catabolic stimulation, while the mechanism by which lactose stimulates the expression oftiredStructural genes is called allosteric regulation.
The operon model of gene expression regulation in bacteria was proposed by _____.
Jacob and Monod
Which of these is NOT part oftiredOperon?
single gene regulator
Regulatory proteins bind to _____.
In the presence of a regulatory protein thattiredthe operon is _____.
Which of these is a regulatory gene?
A(n) ____ is a stretch of DNA consisting of an operator, a promoter and genes for a related set of proteins, usually forming a complete metabolic pathway.
The ________ is (are) sequential after the promoter.
genes of an operon
A(n)______ is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that binds to RNA polymerase and positions it to start RNA transcription at the appropriate site.
A(n) _____ encodes a protein such as B. a repressor that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes.
Regulatory proteins bind to _____ to control operon expression.
A(n) _____ is a protein that inhibits gene transcription. In prokaryotes, this protein binds to DNA at or near the promoter.
A(n)_______ is a specific small molecule that binds to a bacterial regulatory protein and changes shape so that it cannot bind an operator, thereby activating an operon.
_____ binds to enhancer regions of DNA.
Which of these indicates a strengthening region?
Which one is directly linked to the promoter?
The enzyme complexes that break down proteins are called _____.
The role of the nuclear membrane in regulating gene expression includes _____.
Regulation of the transport of mRNA into the cytoplasm
What is the function of a spliceosome?
The role of protein phosphorylating enzymes in the regulation of gene expression includes _____.
Which of the following terms describes DNA-protein complexes that look like pearls on a string?
Which of the following normative elements isNOcomposed of DNA sequences?
Right or wrong? Regulatory and basal transcription factors regulate transcription by binding to the promoter.
Which of the following regulatory DNA sequences might be thousands of nucleotides from the transcription start site of a gene?
Which of the following events at the start of transcription is likely to occur last?
RNA-Polymerase bound to the Promoter des Gens.
Right or wrong? One way to alter chromatin structure so that genes can be transcribed would be to make histone proteins more positively loaded.